**SYLLABUS**

**BME 525: Advanced Biomedical Imaging**

Each week represents three hours of lecture.

**WK
1: Overview of Various Imaging
Modalities**

X-ray computed tomography, nuclear medical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) imaging.

**WK
2: Continuation of Overview and
Introduction to X-Ray Computed Tomography**

Principles of computed tomography, linear and angular sampling, sampling frequency, limited angular sampling, image reconstruction techniques, simple backprojection, iterative algorithms, Fourier and Direct reconstruction algorithms.

**WK
3: Instrumentation and Applications
of ****X-ray CT**

X-ray sources, radiation detectors, first to fifth generation CT scanners, beam hardening artifacts, brain scans, whole body scans, myocardial imaging, contrast agents, synchronous three-dimensional imaging, cine-CT scanner, spiral CT, image display. Discussion of homework to simulate a direct reconstruction algorithm.

**WK
4: Student Presentation of Homework in CT**

**WK
5: Conventional Nuclear Medical
Imaging/ Emission Computed Tomography**

Radioactive tags of biochemical function, scintillation detectors, basics of collimation, scintillation cameras, scattered radiation, clinical applications. Introduction to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), Image reconstruction in SPECT, statistical methods, cone-beam SPECT, Variations in sensitivity, line spread function and related problems, attenuation and scatter correction, quantification, electronically collimated SPECT, clinical applications of SPECT.

**WK
6: Positron Emission Tomography
(PET)**

Basics of PET, electronic collimation, scatter and attenuation correction, image reconstruction, instrumentation, time-of-flight techniques in PET, clinical applications.

**WK
7: Presentation of homework on SPECT and
PET**

**WK
8: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 1**

Physical concepts, classical and quantum mechanics, Bloch equations, spin density, relaxation times, pulse sequences.

**WK
9: MIDTERM**

**WK
10: MRI 2**

Image formation, Projection reconstruction, Direct Fourier imaging, Phase encoding, Chemical shift imaging, Fast imaging techniques, flow-imaging, Instrumentation, resistive and superconducting magnets, RF coils, gradient coils, computer interfaces, system integration, clinical applications in brain imaging, Introduction to cardiac MRI.

**WK
11: Functional MRI and Diffusion
Imaging**

Basics of functional MRI (fMRI), models, experimental techniques, Data processing in fMRI, spatiotemporal resolution, clinical and neuroscience applications, Introduction to MR Diffusion, Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), White matter tractography, Applications of diffusion imaging and DTI.

**WK
12: Presentation of Homework in MRI**

**WK
13: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG)**

Principles, localized spectroscopy, single-voxel proton spectroscopy, F-19 spectroscopy, chemical shift imaging, clinical applications.

Introduction to biomagnetism, Biot-Savart law, electrical current sources in the brain, EEG, modeling, inverse problem, iterative reconstruction algorithms, Fourier based approaches, Tomography, SQUID based neuromagnetometers, correlation of MEG/EEG and functional MRI, clinical applications.

**WK
14: Presentations of Student Projects**

**WK
15: FINAL**

**LIST OF COURSE ****READINGS**

**Text-book
(recommended)**

**Foundations of Medical Imaging, Z. H. Cho,
Joie Jones and Manbir Singh, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ****New York****, 1993.**

**Additional reading (recommended)**

A. Radiological Imaging: The theory of image formation, detection, and processing Vol. 1 and 2, H.H. Barrett and W. Swindell, Academic Press, New York, 1981.

B. Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging, A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, IEEE Press, 1987.

C. Physics
in Nuclear Medicine, James Sorenson and Michael Phelps, Grune and

D. Scientific
Basis of Medical imaging, P.N.T. Wells,
Churchill Livingstone,

E. Principles
of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A signal processing perspective, Z-P Liang and
P.C. Lauterbur, IEEE Press Series,

**EXAMS**

One Midterms (20% weight including 15% for a written exam and 5% for presentation of project outline), Homework (20%) and one Final project (60% weight for the final paper including oral presentation 30% and written report 30%).

The midterm will involve an outline presentation on a topic selected for a project paper by each student and a written exam. The written exam will cover material discussed in the class up to the midterm. Homework requires writing a program to simulate computed tomography and oral presentation of reviews of several papers during the semester. The final will consist of a detailed presentation of the project paper and a written report.