BME 525: Advanced Biomedical Imaging




Each week represents three hours of lecture.


WK 1:       Overview of Various Imaging Modalities


X-ray computed tomography, nuclear medical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) imaging.


WK 2:       Continuation of Overview and Introduction to X-Ray Computed Tomography


Principles of computed tomography, linear and angular sampling, sampling frequency, limited angular sampling, image reconstruction techniques, simple backprojection, iterative algorithms, Fourier and Direct reconstruction algorithms.


WK 3:       Instrumentation and Applications of X-ray CT


X-ray sources, radiation detectors, first to fifth generation CT scanners, beam hardening artifacts, brain scans, whole body scans, myocardial imaging, contrast agents,  synchronous three-dimensional imaging, cine-CT scanner, spiral CT, image display. Discussion of homework to simulate a direct reconstruction algorithm.


WK 4: Student Presentation of Homework in CT


WK 5:       Conventional Nuclear Medical Imaging/ Emission Computed Tomography


Radioactive tags of biochemical function, scintillation detectors, basics of collimation, scintillation cameras, scattered radiation, clinical applications. Introduction to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), Image reconstruction in SPECT, statistical methods, cone-beam SPECT, Variations in sensitivity, line spread function and related problems, attenuation and scatter correction, quantification, electronically collimated SPECT, clinical applications of SPECT.


WK 6:       Positron Emission Tomography (PET)


Basics of PET, electronic collimation, scatter and attenuation correction, image reconstruction, instrumentation, time-of-flight techniques in PET, clinical applications.


WK 7:  Presentation of homework on SPECT and PET


WK 8:       Magnetic Resonance Imaging  (MRI) 1


Physical concepts, classical and quantum mechanics, Bloch equations, spin density, relaxation times, pulse sequences.


WK 9:       MIDTERM



WK 10:     MRI 2


Image formation, Projection reconstruction, Direct Fourier imaging, Phase encoding, Chemical shift imaging, Fast imaging techniques, flow-imaging, Instrumentation, resistive and superconducting magnets, RF coils, gradient coils, computer interfaces, system integration, clinical applications in brain imaging, Introduction to cardiac MRI.


WK 11:     Functional MRI and Diffusion Imaging


Basics of functional MRI (fMRI), models, experimental techniques, Data processing in fMRI, spatiotemporal resolution, clinical and neuroscience applications, Introduction to MR Diffusion, Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), White matter tractography, Applications of diffusion imaging and DTI.


WK 12:     Presentation of Homework in MRI


WK 13:     Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/ Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG)



Principles, localized spectroscopy, single-voxel proton spectroscopy, F-19 spectroscopy, chemical shift imaging, clinical applications.


Introduction to biomagnetism, Biot-Savart law, electrical current sources in the brain, EEG, modeling, inverse problem, iterative reconstruction algorithms, Fourier based approaches, Tomography, SQUID based neuromagnetometers, correlation of MEG/EEG and functional MRI, clinical applications.


WK 14:     Presentations of Student Projects


WK 15:     FINAL




Text-book (recommended)


Foundations of Medical Imaging, Z. H. Cho, Joie Jones and Manbir Singh, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, 1993.



Additional reading (recommended)


A.     Radiological Imaging:  The theory of image formation, detection, and processing Vol. 1 and 2, H.H. Barrett and W. Swindell, Academic Press, New York, 1981.


B.     Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging, A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, IEEE Press, 1987.


C.     Physics in Nuclear Medicine, James Sorenson and Michael Phelps, Grune and Stratton, New York, 1980.


D.     Scientific Basis of Medical imaging, P.N.T.  Wells, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1982.


E.      Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A signal processing perspective, Z-P Liang and P.C. Lauterbur, IEEE Press Series, New York, 1999.  








One Midterms (20% weight including 15% for a written exam and 5% for presentation of project outline), Homework (20%) and one Final project (60% weight for the final paper including oral presentation 30% and written report 30%).


The midterm will involve an outline presentation on a topic selected for a project paper by each student and a written exam. The written exam will cover material discussed in the class up to the midterm. Homework requires writing a program to simulate computed tomography and oral presentation of reviews of several papers during the semester. The final will consist of a detailed presentation of the project paper and a written report.