– BME 620
Course Description –
Course Goal & Learning Objectives
course is intended to provide the theoretical basis and applied design
principles for medical devices and instrumentation that interact with
electrically excitable tissues of the body:
Excitable tissues include cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and central
and peripheral neurons involved in sensing, control of movement and control
of autonomic functions.
Instrumentation includes therapeutic devices (pacemakers,
defibrillators, cochlear implants, epidural stimulators, transcutaneous
electrical stimulators, functional neuromuscular stimulators) and diagnostic
devices (electrocardiography, electromyography, electroencephalography and
other aspects of clinical neurophysiology).
After successfully completing this course, the student
should be able to:
Estimate the feasibility of recording and stimulating any
electrophysiological signal from first principles of biophysics.
Describe the working principles of all currently available medical
devices for therapeutic modulation of neural signals.
Identify technological and biological limitations in the treatment of
clinical disorders of the heart, motor control and special senses.
Record and analyze common electrophysiological signals, including ECG,
EMG and EEG.
Instructor: Gerald E. Loeb, M.D.
Assistants & Cardiac Lecturers:
Hilton M. Kaplan, M.D. & Djordje Popovic, M.D.
James Weiland, Ph.D. (visual system);
Robert Shannon, Ph.D. (auditory system);
Ted Berger, Ph.D. (cortical interfaces); Nicholas A. Sachs, M.S.
Text: "Principles of Neuroscience" by Kandel, Schwartz and Jessell
(ed.), McGraw-Hill, 4th ed., 2000.
"Bioelectromagnetism - Principles & Applications of
Bioelectric & Biomagnetic Fields" by Jaakko Malmivuo &
Robert Plonsey, Oxford University Press, New York, 1995 (Web
there is no homework in the traditional sense, IT IS ESSENTIAL FOR ALL
STUDENTS TO READ ALL OF THE BACKGROUND MATERIAL BEFORE COMING TO CLASS FOR
EACH DISCUSSION, as it is posted in the online syllabus. This course is taught by Socratic Method
(see below), in which the lecturer asks leading questions to get the students
to produce the material to be learned.
All students are expected to be familiar with and WILL BE CALLED UPON
TO PRESENT both the basic physiology and the basic electronics relevant to
each topic so that the discussion can focus on the research and design
problems for the clinical applications.
First Exam – 20%
Designed to calibrate your study
Final Exam – 40%
Will cover ALL material covered in all seminars.
Lab Notebook – 20%
(Participation in seminar discussions for BME 599 students)
student will keep a laboratory notebook in which he/she records experimental
objectives, methods, protocols, parameters, file information and key
data. Lab notebooks must be completed
“in real time”. They will
be collected for grading at the end of each experimental session and returned
at the next session for discussion.
Grading will be based on the sufficiency and clarity of the recorded
information to permit the experiment to be replicated.
student will prepare a feasibility analysis for a novel electrodiagnostic or
therapeutic modality of his/her choice.
This must include an executive summary (1 p), a brief review of the
relevant physiology and pathology (1-2 pp), the high level design of the
proposed device or instrument (1-2 pp plus figures), and a prioritized
summary of the major scientific and technological risks in realizing the
product (1-2 pp).
and teaching laboratory with LCD projection.
for supplemental materials and sources.
Socratic method of
inquiry, also called the elenchos,
as well as elenchus, or elench, was introduced by Socrates in order to discover the truth. It was first
described by Plato in the Socratic
Socratic method is a negative
method of truth-seeking, in that truth is found by steadily identifying and
eliminating that which is not true. The method of Socrates is a search for
the underlying assumptions, or axioms,
which may unconsciously shape one's opinion, and to make them the subject of
scrutiny, to determine their truth or falsity. The basic form is a series of questions formulated as tests of logic
and fact intended to help a person or group discover the truth
about some topic. A skillful teacher can actually teach students to think for
themselves using this method. This is the only classic method of teaching
that is known to create genuinely autonomous thinkers.
There are some crucial principles to this form of
must set the topic of instruction, and the student must agree to this.
must agree to attempt to answer questions from the teacher.
must be willing to accept any correctly-reasoned answer. That is, the
reasoning process must be considered
more important than facts.
questions must expose errors in the students' reasoning. That is, the teacher
must reason more quickly and
correctly than the student, and
discover errors in the students' reasoning, and then formulate a question
which the students
cannot answer except by a correct
reasoning process. To perform this service, the teacher must be very
about the classic errors in
If the teacher
makes an error of logic or fact, it is acceptable for a student to correct
is helpful if the teacher is able to lead a group of students in a
discussion. This is not always possible in situations that require the
teacher to evaluate students, but it is preferable pedagogically, because it
encourages the students to reason for truth rather than from authority.
loosely, one can label any process of thorough-going questioning as an
instance of the Socratic method.