Nonequilibrium Processes in Modern Semiconductor Devices, Spring 2003.

**EE 606 Outline and course
content**

Practical sub-micron and nano-scale devices usually operate in a regime dominated by non-equilibrium effects. However, most conventional semiconductor device courses still use equilibrium or near equilibrium concepts to describe device operation. The purpose of this course is to introduce a more realistic approach to understanding device operation in modern sub-micron and nano-scale devices. Much of what will be introduced relies on the concept that many important non-equilibrium effects can be described in terms of a family of elementary excitations which usually only interact weakly with each other. The course will emphasize the actual calculation of useful parameters relevant to the design and operation of practical and research devices such as scaled transistors (single-electron and quantum wire based) and scaled lasers (micro-cavity, quantum dot, and quantum wire based).

This course is divided into; (i) introductory material, (ii) specific examples of non-equilibrium effects determining the performance of devices, (iii) presentation of selected research papers. Participants should have a working knowledge of quantum mechanics and semiconductor physics on a level at least comparable to EE 539 and EE 506.

Books worth using for reference and background reading include "Semiconductors" by D. K. Ferry, ISBN 0-02-337130-7, “Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors” by H. Haug and S. W. Koch, ISBN 981-02-0024-2, “Semiconductor-laser fundamentals” by W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, ISBN 3-540-64166-1, “Physics of Optoelectronic Devices” by S. L. Chuang, ISBN 0-471-10939-8.

Some material covered by this course does not appear in any textbook.

There will be no class exam.

**Part (i):**

**Introduction to bandstructure:
**Introduction to crystal structure. Hydrogenic orbitals. Covalent bonding
and LCAO. Bloch states and band structure. The tight-binding method and the
k.p method. Survey of semiconductor properties including heterostructures and
modern semiconductor devices.

**Introduction to dielectric
functions: **Simple dielectric functions. Plasma frequency. Optical
susceptibility and the simple oscillator model of optical absorption. The
Kramers-Kronig relations. Lattice dynamics and the contribution of longitudinal
polar-optic phonons to the dielectric function.

**Introduction to electron
transport: **Doping in semiconductors and *r _{s}*

**Introduction to Coulomb
scattering: **Elastic scattering by non-randomly positioned ionized
impurities in semiconductors. Estimating electron mobility. Long lived
quasi-particle states. Calculation of inelastic scattering rates for
non-equilibrium electrons within the RPA. The inter-collisional field effect.

**Part (ii):**

**Inelastic electron
scattering:** Influence of inelastic scattering on gain in laser diodes and
non-equilibrium electron transport in NETs, HBTs, and MODFETS. Non-equilibrium
effects in quantum wire and quantum dot devices.

**The semiconductor laser:**
Optical cavities, laser diode rate equations for single-mode, multi-mode, and
quantization of photon and electron number. Non-equilibrium phase transition in
the laser.

**The avalanche photodiode:**
Non-local effects in electron multiplication at breakdown.

**Part (iii):**

**Presentation of research
papers:**

Class discussion of selected research papers.